About this Guide
Accurate referencing is critical to quality academic writing and avoidance of
plagiarism. To assist students to develop this important skill, the need for a
nominated style – in the absence of an established discipline-specific style –
was identified by the University's Academic Senate:
That Academic Senate approve the proposal that the University adopt the Harvard
Referencing System as the default referencing system to be used in the absence
of documented Faculty/Discipline preferred referencing techniques, to be
effective from 2004
Academic Senate 2003, Resolution 111/03, Minutes from 19/11/2003,
As the Harvard Referencing System has many variations, the Library, Learning
Development and CEDIR have collaborated to produce the UOW Author-Date
(Harvard) Referencing Guide.
The Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers (2002) was used as the basis
for tailoring the Guide. Other reputable sources were consulted for
consistency, particularly when dealing with resource types not addressed in the
Style Manual. Reference entries for additional resource types were developed
based upon those included in the Style Manual. It is still not possible to
include all variations, particularly as new resources are constantly emerging. At times you will still need to adapt the existing reference type examples to
create an appropriate equivalent.
us what you think
How to Use this Guide
- Remember, the keys to good referencing are
- Always check with your lecturer or tutor for clarification, as the accuracy of your referencing is part of the
assessment of your work.
- Refer to the Glossary for definitions of resource types, terms
used and standard abbreviations.
If the examples provided do not exactly match the elements of
the resource you wish to reference:
- Look carefully at a similar reference type and use the Format of key
elements, together with the examples provided, to construct
entries in-text and within the reference list
- If some of the key elements cannot be found, include as much detail as you can
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How to construct a reference list
A reference list is an alphabetical list of all of the sources you have cited in your document. The purpose of a reference list is to help readers to find original material you have cited.
- Give your reference list a title (usually ‘References’)
- Order all of the references in a single list:
- alphabetically by author’s family name/authoring body (or title if there is no author)
- if there are multiple works by the same author, put the earliest date first
- do not indent or number the references
- Make sure the author details and year in the in-text citation exactly match the entry in the reference list
- Reference lists are usually placed at the end of the main body of your document.
- Remember, always check with your lecturer or tutor for clarification, as the accuracy of your referencing is part of the assessment of your work.
Example of a reference list
Blair, DJ 1996, ‘Beyond the metaphor: football and war, 1914-1918’, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, no.28, accessed 15/5/2007, http://www.awm.gov.au/journal/j28/j28-blai.htm
Department of Veterans’ Affairs 2006, Helpful Links to Veteran Related Sites, accessed 10/8/2006, http://www.dva.gov.au/contacts/site.htm
Dolnicar, S, Crouch, GI & Long, P 2008, ‘Environment-friendly tourists: what do we really know about them?’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol.16, no.2, pp197-210.
Dolnicar, S & Hurliman, A 2010, ‘Australians’ water conservation behaviours and attitudes’, Australian Journal of Water Resources, vol.14, no.6, pp43-53.
A History of Reclamation in the West 2000, History Program, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Malinowski, W, Larsen, AA, Ngu, B & Fairweather, S 1999, Human Geography, Routledge, New York.
Preston, AC 1990a, Multivariate Analysis of Nurses’ Absence Behaviour, Business Research and Development Fund of the Confederation of Western Australian Industry, East Perth, WA.
Preston, AC 1990b, Theories and Causes of Labour Absence: Reconciling the Economic and Psychology Approaches, Business Research and Development Fund of the Confederation of Western Australian Industry, East Perth, WA.
Rose, DB 2002, ‘Good hunters’, in Country of the Heart: An Indigenous Australian Homeland, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, pp77-113.
Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 2002, 6th edn, John
The Harvard author-date referencing system
http://resource.unisa.edu.au/course/view.php?id=1572&topic=4 > Printable Harvard Referencing Guide (PDF document)
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